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In the 1860s the River Torrens in Adelaide varied between raging flood and a series of waterholes. Floods were exacerbated by the activities of European settlers, who had cut down vegetation, mined gravel and deepened the river’s once shallow bed with their transport and animals. River banks were eroded and the once clean waters, in which Kaurna people had fished and collected freshwater mussels, were polluted with sewage and rubbish.

A concerted program to improve Adelaide’s sanitation and public health began in 1867 with the laying of the first deep drainage pipes to which water closets could be connected. These were extended from 1878 and completed in 1885. At first, sewage pipes just emptied into soakage areas in the City’s parklands. But from 7 January 1881 sewage was pumped to Islington, north of Adelaide.

Cleaning up of the parklands was accompanied by attempts to dam the river to control its flow and to provide a place of recreation. The first dam (1867), near the site of the current weir, created a lake that quickly became a site for boating clubs. However, the dam was washed away before the end of the year. Limited funds delayed the construction of a new concrete weir until November 1880. The weir was completed and Torrens Lake created in July 1881.

A problem difficult to resolve

Sir Edwin Thomas Smith (Adelaide’s mayor 1879–82 and 1886–88) is credited not only with the vision for the lake, but also with the idea of landscaping its surrounds and providing paths along which the public could stroll in the open air. In realising his ambitions, Smith was confronted with a considerable problem: the Corporation of the City of Adelaide did not own the parklands, which were the property of the Crown and already dotted with numerous government constructions.

In 1879 Smith was instrumental in Adelaide City Council gaining control of reserve land with a long frontage to the Torrens. The steep and eroded banks of the river were sloped and broad paths by the side of the lake were created for promenading. But these did not extend into the whole of the area that is now Elder Park. When the rotunda, which is a feature of the park, was erected in 1882, only the area immediately around it had been secured by the Council and the promenade did not extend to King William Street.

It was many years before the Council controlled all of the area that is now Elder Park. Town Clerk Thomas Worsnop’s request to the government for more reserve land, including a strip along the lake frontage to extend the promenade, was initially rejected. This area, known as the governor’s ‘old garden’, had been used to grow vegetables for the governor’s table. It was eventually secured through a land swap in 1887. The additional 2½ha around the rotunda were landscaped and trees planted. Rotunda Park, as it was then called, became the city’s first pleasure gardens.

Council gained formal control of the park in 1890. But the park was not completed until late in 1927, following an acrimonious battle with the South Australian Railways Commission. South Australian Railways had a track that ran from the rail yards along the edge of the park and under King William Street and north of Government Domain and terminated at the Jubilee Grounds (now part of the University of Adelaide). When the railway track was removed, the Council sought the land where the track had been. Negotiations stalled and South Australian Railways erected a tall wire fence topped with barbed wire along the edge of track and the existing park. The dispute ended when the Council agreed to exchange part of the City Baths reserve.

Rotunda Park was renamed Elder Park in 1907 in recognition of Sir Thomas Elder, who had not only donated the £860 to build the rotunda and but also made a substantial contribution of £100 towards its installation.

The Rotunda

The Elder Park rotunda was made at Macfarlane’s Saracen Foundry in Glasgow and shipped from London on 14 February 1882. It was constructed of decorative wrought iron with a zinc roof. On arrival it was painted bronze, grey and blue and erected on a mound so that it was clearly visible from King William Street, around the area and across the river.

The band rotunda was officially opened on 28 November 1882, more than a year after the weir and lake were completed. At least 3000 people attended the event on a fine, late spring evening. The soon-to-be-retired mayor, Edwin Smith, announced that it would be the venue for regular music performances for the enjoyment of the community.

Sir Edwin Smith Kiosk

Sir Edwin Smith was a very active mayor for Adelaide, following on from terms as mayor for Kensington (1867–70) and Norwood (1870–73), in keeping with his activities as a wealthy brewer and Member of Parliament (MHA 1871–93 and MLC 1894–1902). He was a philanthropist and paid for the construction of a kiosk in Elder Park, which opened on 17 March 1910.

Advertiser Sound Shell

Music events became larger and more varied over time. By the 1950s it was obvious that the band rotunda could not provide for the range of concerts sought by the public. The Advertiser newspaper responded with the donation of a ‘sound shell’ or concert stage, constructed to the west of the rotunda and nearer to the lake. It was backed by a wall of large trees that shielded the nearby Cheer-Up Hut from the park.

The Advertiser Sound Shell opened on 17 December 1954 to commemorate the visit of Queen Elizabeth II. The sloping grounds in front of it could seat up to 50 000 people. Designed by architects Woods, Bagot, Laybourne-Smith & Irwin, the shell featured some of the most elaborate and modern lighting in Australia at the time. It was one of the buildings demolished in 1972 to make way for the construction of the Festival Centre complex.

Events

Elder Park became and remains a focal point for public gatherings, concerts and festivals.

During the First World War Elder Park hosted patriotic rallies. After the war Anzac Day services were conducted there. The VE (Victory in Europe) Day service for the Second World War was held in the park on 9 May 1945.

Australia’s place in the Asia–Pacific region has been acknowledged and celebrated in Elder Park from the 1970s, particularly with the encouragement of Premier Don Dunstan. He actively participated in North Malaysian Week in 1977. Today’s Moon Lantern Festivals continue this celebration.

Thousands came to Elder Park to view Prime Minister Kevin Rudd’s ‘Apology to the Stolen Generations’, given in 2008 in Parliament House in Canberra, on a large screen erected for the occasion. Annual Reconciliation Week activities maintain an indigenous connection with Elder Park and the river.

Popular concerts in Elder Park include those for the Adelaide Festival of Arts, the ‘Symphony under the stars’ and ‘Carols by candlelight’ which has been a charity fundraising event just before Christmas for several decades. New Year fireworks displays and regattas on the lake have been viewed from the park. Political and union rallies commencing at Victoria Square frequently ended with public speeches from the rotunda or a stage erected in the park. Food festivals, children’s ‘Come Out’ festivals, Australia Day celebrations, multi-cultural festivals, and art exhibitions have all been held in Elder Park. And the Popeye boat cruise and the paddle boats on the river are based there.

By Jude Elton, History Trust of South Australia

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Advertiser Sound Shell

Images
Image: A raised stage in surrounded by parklands with an angular shell shaped roof

Events: Entertainment

Images
Image: a spinning carnival ride set up in a park is surrounded by a number of large canvas tents and a crowd of people in 1930s era clothing
Image: A crowd of women in white dresses and men in dark suits circa 1912 stand in a park around a rotunda upon which a band plays. The rotunda is draped in an Australian flag while other flags fly nearby. In the background a large marquee can be seen.

Events: Aboriginal

Images
Image: a large group of people in modern dress stand in a park in front of a large screen. The park is also dotted with colourful marquees. To the right of the picture a rotunda is visible while in the background, across a lake, stadium lights can be seen

Events: Connections with Asia

Images
Image: A large white and orange paper lantern in the shape of a teapot glows in the dark as it is carried by a group of people in front of a stage lighting rig illuminated in pink and a banner reading moon lantern festival.

Events: War and Peace

Images
Image: a large crowd of people in early 20th century dress, some with umbrellas, stand on a grassed area in a park watching men in military uniform parade.
Image: a large crowd of people in 1920s dress, some with umbrellas, sit or stand in a park around a man on a low stage
Image: a crowd of people, some in military uniform, watch dignitaries give speeches from a rotunda. A flag, possibly the Union Jack, is just visible on a flagpole to the right of the photograph.

The Park and Rotunda

Images
Image: a bridge with an arched parapet spans a small river in a deep valley
Image: a tree lined road stretches through parklands and across a river. Pedestrians in late 19th century clothes walk down a wide footpath while a horse drawn bus can be seen on the road. In the park to the left of the photo there is a small rotunda.
Image: A large palm tree surrounded by flowers, paths and lawns stands on the bank of a lake. In the foreground a man can be seen sitting on a park bench whilst in the background a low bridge can be seen crossing the lake.
Image: A floating building with a multi-domed roof sits on a lake surrounded by trees and lawns. A rotunda can be seen on the shore by the floating building and in the background, across the lake, churches and houses can be seen.
Image: A crowd of people in early twentieth century attire sit on the grass around a rotunda where a band plays
Image: a number of groups of people in 1950s clothing stroll through parklands or sit in the shade of trees by a lake.
Image: Three women and seven children in 1950s clothing sit on low chairs in a park enjoying a picnic. In the background a rotunda can be seen.
Image: a collection of stable buildings on the bank of a river.
Image: A rotunda sits on a hill in a landscaped park on the bank of a river
Image: A boy stands in waist deep water in a flooded park while others sit in row boats around him. In the centre of the photograph is a rotunda which is half underwater.
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